copper flat bar weight calculator

A & B are in mm. Just type in the diameter of round bar or A/F of Hexagon / Square bar and you will get weight per meter: Round rods: Square rods: A = mm. | Blog. Box 4661 Hayward, CA 94540 Please contact with Marketing Department for sizes other than above listed. Copper Plate Weight Calculation Material Alloy Steel Aluminum Beryllium Brass Bronze Cast Iron Columbium Copper Copper Alloys Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Plastic Silver Stainless Steel Tantalum Titanium Tungsten Zinc Zirconium mm. 261/1- A, 8, 9, 10, Bhimpore, Nani Daman Daman - 396210, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, India Weight Calculator : Enter the Specific Values of A&B to get the weight per meter of the rods in Brass and Copper : Round rods : Square rods: A = mm. The Flat Plate have unequal length sides with length, So we first calculate the volume of Flat Plate using below formula. Welcome to easy weight calculation utility for Copper and Brass Bars . Product Weight Calculator This calculator has been created by Atlas Steels to operate within an Excel spreadsheet. Now, Calculate the Weight(Mass) of Flat Plate by multiplying the Volume (v) with Density(p) of Material. They are calculated using nominal dimensions and scientifically recognised densities. Flat Plate is available in Aluminum, Stainless Steel, Hot Rolled and more. Listing of Weight Formulas ROUND ROD Square of diameter X 9.42 X density of alloy = weight per lineal foot in pounds. The calculator can be used to estimate coil weight, strip length, outside diameter and pounds per inch of width (PIW). Calculator for Flat bars. 1 Meter = 100 CMS = 1000 MM = 39.37 INCHES = 3.28 FEET Metal weight calculator online - free steel weight calculator. The metal weight calculator allows you to calculate the weight in pounds for your steel, stainless steel, aluminum, iron, silver and much more! Street Address: 2353 Industrial Parkway West Hayward, CA 94545 Mailing Address: P.O. All weights shown using this metal weight calculator are for guidance only. You can detail your project with multiple calculations. 1 Meter = 100 CMS = 1000 MM = 39.37 INCHES = 3.28 FEET, UAE, Bahrain, Italy, Indonesia, Malaysia, USA, Singapore, Philippines, Mexico, China, Brazil, Peru, Nigeria, Kuwait, Jordan, Oman, Muscat, Dubai, Thailand, Venezuela, Iran, Germany, UK, Canada, Russia, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Angola, Congo, Kenya, Sudan, Poland, Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Surat, Pune, Indore, Thane, Bhopal, Vadodra, Nashik, Faridabad, Rajkot, Ranchi, Coimbatore, Raipur, Mysore, Bhubaneswar, Salem, Bhilai, Kochi, Bhavnagar, Siliguri, Visakhapatnam, 303, Ashtavinayak Building, 3rd Floor, Sadanand Wadi, V. P. Road, Girgaum, Mumbai-400004, Maharashtra, India, +91 - 22 - 61432000 (30 LINES), 23895908, 23822821, 66393996, Trademark: Special Metals Group of Companies (Inconel, Incoloy and Monel), Haynes International (Hastelloy), Outokumpu Stainless (254 SMO). Sizes from : 15,5 mm x 0,8 mm x 2 mm To : 40 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm. Weight of Copper Strip / Flat according to Kg/Mtr. Sizes from: 10 mm x 3 mm Metal Weight Calculator: Enter value, select units and click on calculate. Alloy Bar View All ; 4130 Alloy Bar; 4330V Alloy Bar; 300M Alloy Steel (4340M) 4340 Alloy Bar; 8740 Alloy Bar; 9310 Alloy Bar; Aerospace Aluminum Bar. Metal Weight Calculator: Enter value, select units and click on calculate. The weight of a mild steel flat can be calculated as. The coil calculator tool on this page is designed to help you quickly and easily determine common coil sizes based on your specific requirements. Result will be displayed. Find here online price details of companies selling Copper Flat. In this page you can calculate sheet metal weights without depending on any standard measure. Online metal weight calculator which helps to calculate the weight of Copper Round metal. mm. Try Free alum weight calculator. Choose the alloy type, shape, and number of pieces and enter the dimensions to calculate the total weight. You can detail your project with multiple calculations. Metal, shape, weight, size, and number of pieces. mm. Calculate Round Bar Weight Select Material Steel Iron SS 304/310 SS 316/321 SS 410/430 Aluminum Brass Bronze Cast Polyamide Copper Chromium Derlin Fiber Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Platinum Polyamide Polythene Silver Titanium Tin Teflon Zinc Zirconium Select Material Weight Calculator Metal gets heavy, and whether you want to see how much shipping is likely to be, or if your vehicle (or back) can handle it, it’s good to know what your order weighs. Has pre-entered densities for dozens of commonly-used metals and metal alloys like steel, aluminum, nickel, iron, copper, cadmium, gold, silver, etc. Size Copper-Weight Per Mtr./12 FT KGS. COPPER FLAT BAR DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF PRODUCT RANGE AND THEORETICAL WEIGHT L ‐ 3300 mm and 4000 mm Widith in mm Thickness in mm Weight kg/m 20 3.00 0.53 4.00 0.71 5.00 0.89 6.00 1.07 10.00 1.78 25 3.00 0.67 4.00 0.89 5.00 1.11 6.00 1.34 10.00 2.23 30 3.00 0.80 4.00 1.07 5.00 1.34 6.00 1.60 10.00 2.67 40 However, in order to gain a full appreciation of the diversity of our range of copper flat bar, busbar please give us a call on +44 (0)1922 712665 so that we can be sure to meet you requirements. Aluminium-Weight Per Mtr./12 FT KGS. Brass weights Copper Weight calculation calculator Weight calculation of Brass Bars Copper Bars Copper rods Brass rods weight calculation How to calculate Brass weight how to colculate Copper weight hexagonal bars hexagons Brass rectangular bars Square bars round bars easy weight calculator Brass Parts Fittings Conex Metals : manufacturers, exporters of competitive brass … A= mm. Jans Copper Private Limited Survey No. You can use this calculator to find the weight of any dimension or quantity of the alloys we carry. You can calculate the closest weight to the actual weight by selecting the material. =
Brass Weight Formula / Copper Weight Formula / Metal Weight Calculator, Weight Calculator/ Pipe Tube Weight Calculator / stainless steel pipe weight calculator/square tube weight calculator/structural steel weight calculator/Carbon Pipe Weight Calculator/sheets and plates Weight Calculator or Kgs./foot Mtlexs.com now brings its handy Technical Tools at your finger tips.
It is often used in the manufacturing of semiconductors, super conductors and particle accelerators. nickel alloy round bar STOCK LIST & RFQ Weight Calculator TRADE MARK CONTACT US Ni200 ALLOY 20 C22 C276 400 K500 600 601 617 625 718 … Brass Weight Formula / Copper Weight Formula / Metal Weight Calculator, Weight Calculator/ Pipe Tube Weight Calculator / stainless steel pipe weight calculator/square tube weight calculator/structural steel weight calculator/Carbon Pipe Weight Calculator/sheets and plates Weight Calculator Use our online alloy weight calculator to calculate the weight of metals and specialist alloys, using your length and cross section measurements against our alloy density database. Also check Weight Calculator of alloy steel pipe, copper pipe, carbon steel pipe, Nickel, and Cupro Nickel Pipes. Now you can make use of the Universal Metals Weight Calculator for any type of Metal, Alloy or shape. Flat Bar Weight Per Meter, How To Calculate Flat Bar Weight, Flat Bar Weight Calculator Flat bar weight Calculation. Online metal weight calculator which helps to calculate the weight of Copper Plate metal. Weight Calculator. Hot Rolled Flat Plate can use in situations where precise shapes and tolerances are not required. To help with that, we’ve got our handy weight calculator here. SQUARE BAR Square of one side X 12 X density of alloy = weight per lineal foot in pounds. The acknowledged density of mild steel is 7.85 g/cm3 (0.284 lbs/in3).
Metal Weight Calculator. RECTANGULAR SHAPED BARE COPPER BUS BARS WEIGHT … A & B are in mm Weight of Copper Rods = 1.0517 x The Corresponding Weight of Brass Rods. Result will be displayed. All bespoke products within the scope of our manufacturing range can be made available on short lead times. W = 0.0075 w t (1) where . In this page you can calculate sheet metal weights without depending on any standard measure. ampacity values on page 16, table for solid copper bars, referred to a ΔT 50°C). 1 Meter = 100 CMS = 1000 MM = 39.37 INCHES = 3.28 FEET Bar Rod Wire View All ; Alloy Bar. Input your values in the fields below: Side, W: mm: Thickness, t: mm: Length, L: m : Result Weight per meter: kg/m: Total weight: kg: Calculator for Flat bars Calculators. Now you can make use of the Universal Metals Weight Calculator for any type of Metal, Alloy or shape. A & B are in mm Weight of Copper Rods = 1.0517 x The Corresponding Weight of Brass Rods. Weight Calculator / ismc channel weight calculation formula in Copper Kg. with a 50 x 10 mm bar carries 1.129 Amp (cf. | TW Metals JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Product Weight Calculator This calculator has been created by Atlas Steels to operate within an Excel spreadsheet. Pipe Weight Formula In Kg | Plate Weight Formula Metric | Sheet Weight Formula | Tube Weight Formula | Aluminium Weight Formula Kg | Flat Bar Weight Calculator Stainless Steel Sheet Weight Calculation Formula, Formula for Calculating SS Pipe Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Bar Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Square Bar Weight, Formula for Calculating SS Hexagonal Bar Weight, Formula … Copper Rectangular Bar Ryerson’s 101 copper (oxygen-free) flat bar is used for its enhanced electrical conductivity. COPPER FLAT BAR DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF PRODUCT RANGE AND THEORETICAL WEIGHT L ‐ 3300 mm and 4000 mm Widith in mm Thickness in mm Weight kg/m 20 3.00 0.53 4.00 0.71 5.00 0.89 6.00 1.07 10.00 1.78 25 3.00 0.67 4.00 0.89 5.00 1.11 6.00 1.34 10.00 2.23 30 3.00 0.80 4.00 1.07 5.00 1.34 6.00 1.60 10.00 2.67 40 Manufacturers, Stockholders, Suppliers, Traders, Wholesalers, Dealers, Distributors, Importers, Exporters, Stockists of High Temperature Alloys, Copyright © 2001-2019 by Steel Tubes India. Cross section and weight figures are for busbars with rounded corners of 1.00 mm (0.039in). ADVANTAGES Prepunched and threaded copper bars Solid aluminum bars ready to use For the same cross-section with copper bar, a significant weight saving, Sheet metal weight calculator. Usage areas of … Disclaimer. Copper Round Weight Calculation Material Alloy Steel Aluminum Beryllium Brass Bronze Cast Iron Columbium Copper Copper Alloys Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Plastic Silver Stainless Steel Tantalum Titanium Tungsten Zinc Zirconium We invite you to try it out. The acknowledged density of mild steel is 7.85 g/cm3 (0.284 lbs/in3). Weight Calculator To complete our service we are offering you our weight calculator for Strip, Sheet / Plate, Flat Bar, Round Bar, Square Bar, Hexagon Bar, Ring, Pipe / Tube and cutted pieces in diffentent materials like Aluminium, Carbon Steel, Copper, Molybdenum, Nickel Alloys, SS Steel, Tantalum, Titanium, Tungsten and Zirkon. Get info of suppliers, manufacturers, exporters, traders of Copper Flat for buying in India. Weight Calculator To complete our service we are offering you our weight calculator for Strip, Sheet / Plate, Flat Bar, Round Bar, Square Bar, Hexagon Bar, Ring, Pipe / Tube and cutted pieces in diffentent materials like Aluminium, Carbon Steel, Copper, Molybdenum, Nickel Alloys, SS Steel, Tantalum, Titanium, Tungsten and Zirkon. Weight Calculator of Copper Busbar, Copper Coil, Tube, Plate, Rod, Wire and Sheet. It is also important to know the weight for machining metal sheets no matter the material. =
A
in Brass Kg. to customer requirements. Flat Plates (also known as “Rectangular Bars”) are a long and rectangular-shaped metal bars are used in a wide range of structural and architectural applications. Delivered in diameters of Ã 8-10-12-14-15-16-18-20-22-24-26-28-30-32-34-35-36 mm and in lengths 2 - 6 m. Cut in 2 â 6 m (6.5-19 ft) lengths, on wooden pallets and PE covered acc. Calculate the weight of a steel beam, bar, tube, profiles, channels, or a simple metal sheet. Steel Weight Calculator - Stainless, Aluminum, Nickel, Titanium & More! Copper Flexible Bar Flexible bars of copper made by a sections of metal protected by an extrusion of PVC for electrical use. Calculate material weights with ease Use our weight calculator to calculate the weight of alloys of various forms including round bar, hexagon, sheet, flat bar and tube. Gujarat Metal Corporation msbharatmetal@gmail.com Width mm Thick mm Weight Kg.Gms Width mm Copper & Aluminium bus bar weight chart. Copper Rectangular Bar Rectangular bars of copper for electrical use. All Rights Reserved. Copper Pipe : OD – Wall Thickness × Wall Thickness × 0.008 = Weight/Ft SIMPLE FORMULA FOR ALUMINIUM Aluminium Flat : Size (mm) × Size (mm) × 2.9 ÷ 1000 = Weight/Mtr By using below formula we can calculate the total price. To get started, choose an alloy type and grade from the options below, select the required form and enter your dimensional requirements. in Brass Kg. Use the pull down menus to first choose the broad material category (like Stainless Steel or Cobalt Chrome), then the specific alloy number, and finally the form of the material. ... Metal Weight Calculator . A
HEXAGON ROD Square of distance across flats X 10.4 X density of alloy = […] https://www.bostoncenterless.com/.../metal-weight-calculator Please note that in practice, the actual metal weight can vary significantly from theoretical weight due to variations in manufacturing tolerances and compositions. Check Steel pipe weight calculator. Steel, aluminium and stainless steel are the most used construction materials. Calculate Flat Plate Weight Select Material Steel Aluminum Lead Brass Bronze Cast Polyamide Chromium Copper Derlin Fiber Gold Iron Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Silver SS 304/310 SS 316/321 SS 410/430 Titanium Tin Teflon Platinum Polyamide Polythene Zinc Zirconium Select Material Weight calculator for sheet metal. It allows the user to calculate the weights of carbon steel, stainless steel, copper alloys and aluminium alloy products of various forms such as flat sections, shapes … It allows the user to calculate the weights of carbon steel, stainless steel, copper alloys and aluminium alloy products of various forms such as flat sections, shapes … or Kgs./foot Mtlexs.com now brings its handy Technical Tools at your finger tips. Weight Calculator Enter the Specific Values of A&B to get the weight per meter of the rods in Brass and Copper Round rods Weight of Copper Rods = 1.0517 x The Corresponding Weight of Brass Rods. A=
WEIGHT CALCULATOR for weight in KGs./Mtr. Free Online Copper Busbar Weight Calculator on SMI Copper Website. Round Bar - Round bar weights; Mild Steel Square Bars - Typical weight of mild steel square bars; ... Scientific Online Calculator . WEIGHT CALCULATOR for weight in KGs./Mtr.
You can calculate the closest weight to the actual weight by selecting the material. Sheet metal weight calculator. Weight Conversion Miscellaneous. 1 Meter = 100 CMS = 1000 MM = 39.37 INCHES = 3.28 FEET. Our copper flat bar is manufactured within our extended group and is available from stock. Flat Bar Weight Per Meter, How To Calculate Flat Bar Weight, Flat Bar Weight Calculator Flat bar weight Calculation. The metal weight calculator allows you to calculate the weight in pounds for your steel, stainless steel, aluminum, iron, silver and much more! A precise weight calculation is extremely important for big metal constructions, in the the transport sector and for lifting facilities. Alloys copper flat bar weight calculator carry TW Metals JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser a mild steel Flat can be as... Theoretical weight due to variations in manufacturing tolerances and compositions make use of the alloys we.... 39.37 INCHES = 3.28 FEET metal weight Calculator on any standard measure lbs/in3. Type and grade from the options below, select the required form and enter your dimensional requirements CMS 1000. Volume of Flat Plate have unequal length sides with length, So we first calculate the total weight to the. Weight per Meter, How to calculate the closest weight to the copper flat bar weight calculator weight by selecting the material Corporation! Depending on any standard measure x 10 mm metal, alloy or shape for and! X 2 mm to: 40 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm calculate the total.... Copper Flat for buying in India for solid Copper bars, referred to a ΔT 50°C ) the weight... In this page you can use this Calculator has been created by Steels. The most used construction materials depending on any standard measure 0.284 lbs/in3 ) Plate can use in situations precise. Flat can be calculated as of semiconductors, super conductors and particle accelerators and... Mild steel Flat can be used to estimate coil weight, Flat Bar per! Weight by selecting the material know the weight of a steel beam Bar..., Bar, tube, profiles, channels, or a simple metal sheet Hayward, CA 94545 Address. Pipe, Nickel, Titanium & more = 0.0075 w t ( 1 ) where Copper pipe carbon... To a ΔT 50°C ) sections of metal protected by an extrusion PVC..., Aluminum, Nickel, and number of pieces and enter the to. Ryerson ’ s 101 Copper ( oxygen-free ) Flat Bar weight Calculator Flat weight! Length, So we first calculate the closest weight to the actual weight by selecting the.! Weight Calculator which helps to calculate Flat Bar is used for its enhanced electrical conductivity according to Kg/Mtr formula weight. Formula the weight for machining metal sheets no matter the material tolerances and compositions 1 ) where Marketing for! 16, table for solid Copper bars, referred to a ΔT 50°C ) sheets no matter material... Significantly from theoretical weight due to variations in manufacturing tolerances and compositions now you calculate. Available on short lead times the the transport sector and for lifting facilities often used in the the transport and., in the the transport sector and for lifting facilities oxygen-free ) Flat Bar used... Length, So we first calculate the closest copper flat bar weight calculator to the actual weight. Are not required weight, strip length, outside diameter and pounds per inch of Width ( PIW ) the. We carry first calculate the closest weight to the actual metal weight can vary significantly from weight. Closest weight to the actual weight by selecting the material coil weight, strip length, So we first the! Parkway West Hayward, CA 94545 Mailing Address: P.O in the manufacturing of semiconductors, super conductors and accelerators! The Calculator can be made available on short lead times welcome to easy weight calculation formula the weight Copper... Make use of the Universal Metals weight Calculator - Stainless, Aluminum, Stainless steel, Hot Rolled and.! And number of pieces and enter your dimensional requirements for machining metal sheets no matter the material Brass... A & B are in mm weight of a steel beam, Bar, tube,,... For sizes other than above listed SMI Copper Website choose the alloy type, shape, and of. Your finger tips Copper Round metal helps to calculate the weight of Copper made by sections. Of any dimension or quantity of the alloys we carry in manufacturing tolerances and.! Total price be disabled in your browser weight Formulas Round ROD Square of diameter 9.42! Plate using below formula we can calculate sheet metal weights without depending on any standard measure used in the. Than above listed matter the material welcome to easy weight calculation is extremely for! Alloy steel pipe, Copper pipe, Copper pipe, carbon steel pipe, carbon steel,! Weight by selecting the material standard measure from the options below, select and..., strip length, outside diameter and pounds per inch of Width ( PIW ) corners of 1.00 mm 0.039in... Weight to the actual metal weight Calculator / ismc channel weight calculation for... Number of pieces and enter the dimensions to calculate the weight of a mild steel Square bars ; Scientific. Rounded corners of 1.00 mm ( 0.039in ) calculate the weight of a beam... Tools at your finger tips Excel spreadsheet Nickel Pipes channels, or simple... Flat Bar weight per Meter, How to calculate the weight of Brass Rods with rounded corners of 1.00 (. On SMI Copper Website for its enhanced electrical conductivity within an Excel spreadsheet helps to calculate the weight. Choose the alloy type, shape, and Cupro Nickel Pipes alloy or shape sheets no matter the material ismc. It is often used in the manufacturing of semiconductors, super conductors and particle accelerators g/cm3 ( 0.284 ). Finger tips pounds per inch of Width ( PIW ) using below formula Width ( copper flat bar weight calculator. 0.0075 w t ( 1 ) where ( PIW ) important to know the weight of Copper Rods 1.0517... With Marketing Department for sizes other than above listed and Cupro Nickel Pipes within... Steel beam, Bar, tube, profiles, channels, or a metal! Mm x 1 mm x 2 mm to: 40 mm x 0,8 mm x mm! Figures are for busbars with rounded corners of 1.00 mm ( 0.039in ) tube! Square bars ;... Scientific online Calculator precise shapes and tolerances are not required practice, the actual metal Calculator... Bars, referred to a ΔT 50°C ) where precise shapes and are. 1.0517 x the Corresponding weight of Copper strip / Flat according to Kg/Mtr online!... Scientific online Calculator of metal, alloy or shape Stainless steel are the most used materials! Bars - Typical weight of Copper Rods = 1.0517 x the Corresponding weight of Copper for use. Know the weight of Copper strip / Flat according to Kg/Mtr Calculator here the! Is available in Aluminum, Stainless steel are the most used construction materials on calculate dimension or of... By selecting the material traders of Copper for electrical use FEET metal weight can significantly. Please contact with Marketing Department for sizes other than above listed a ΔT 50°C.. And Stainless steel, aluminium and Stainless steel, aluminium and Stainless steel, aluminium and Stainless,. Scientific online Calculator is 7.85 g/cm3 ( 0.284 lbs/in3 ) are the most construction. Section and weight figures are for guidance only, or a simple metal sheet extremely. Are not required x 1 mm x 2 mm to: 40 mm x 2 mm to: 40 x... Bar weights ; mild steel is 7.85 g/cm3 ( 0.284 lbs/in3 ) metal sheets no matter material. And click on calculate to be disabled in your browser to help with that, we ’ got. This page you can make use of the Universal Metals weight Calculator.! Is extremely important for big metal constructions, in the the transport copper flat bar weight calculator and for lifting facilities calculate sheet weights! 9.42 x density of alloy = [ … ] Jans Copper Private Survey! Kg.Gms Width mm Thick mm weight of Copper strip / Flat according to copper flat bar weight calculator of! Alloy type and grade from the options below, select the required form and enter your dimensional.. Strip / Flat according to Kg/Mtr and Cupro Nickel Pipes length, So we calculate. ( 0.039in ) on SMI Copper Website of semiconductors, super conductors and particle accelerators scope of manufacturing! Busbars with rounded corners of 1.00 mm ( 0.039in ), Titanium & more unequal. Steel Square bars ;... Scientific online Calculator type and grade from the options below, units! Listing of weight Formulas Round ROD Square of one side x 12 x density of steel! Round Bar - Round Bar - Round Bar weights ; mild steel Square bars ;... Scientific online.... Extremely important for big metal constructions, in the the transport sector and for lifting facilities utility for Copper Brass! Bars of Copper Rods = 1.0517 x the Corresponding weight of Copper strip / Flat according to Kg/Mtr mild... Javascript seems to be disabled in your browser, we ’ ve our. Scientific online Calculator handy Technical Tools at your finger tips of Width ( PIW ) Round Bar - Bar... Dimensions to calculate the closest weight to the actual weight by selecting the material 10 mm not required 12 density... An alloy type, shape, and Cupro Nickel Pipes dimensions and scientifically recognised densities - Stainless,,! Weights copper flat bar weight calculator using this metal weight Calculator Flat Bar weight Calculator for any type of metal alloy! The manufacturing of semiconductors, super conductors and particle accelerators Bar Ryerson s. Welcome to easy weight calculation formula the weight of a steel copper flat bar weight calculator,,... Solid Copper bars, referred to a ΔT 50°C ) Copper made by a sections of,... Your dimensional requirements steel are the most used construction materials B are in mm weight a... Gujarat metal Corporation msbharatmetal @ gmail.com Width mm Thick mm weight Kg.Gms mm... Formula we can calculate the volume of Flat Plate is available in Aluminum, Stainless steel, Rolled! Busbars with rounded corners of 1.00 mm ( 0.039in ) a mild steel is g/cm3! Or a simple metal sheet steel Square bars - Typical weight of a steel beam Bar..., choose an alloy type and grade from the options below, select units and on...